The field of new energy development is in spring, and the typical future energy architecture has hydrogen fuel cell and ocean power generation.
In the future, a large amount of reliable energy can be developed in the ocean, and the provider of storage and mobile energy is hydrogen. Lithium battery will continue to do what it does best, temporary small power storage. The large mobile power source is composed of hydrogen + fuel cell. Oil-powered vehicles will be replaced by fuel cells.
Just as Yang Zhiguang said, in addition to focusing on deploying the offshore power development industry, we are also actively deploying the fuel cell development and hydrogen storage industry. The technical density of the hydrogen storage industry is still quite high, and it needs to be developed slowly.
According to Yang Zhiguang, the operator of the energy fund, we are discussing with some domestic and foreign governments and institutions on the one-stop cooperation project of ocean current power stations and hydrogen generation stations. We will deploy ocean current power generation ships in the ocean where current energy is intensive, and directly generates electricity and produces hydrogen and oxygen, then compresses the gas into hydrogen storage cylinders, and then transports it back inland by ship.
It not only saves the cost and lower risk of laying ocean transmission lines, but also can use the huge ocean current energy of the ocean to generate very cheap energy. The overall economic efficiency of this supporting electrochemical hydrogen facility is much higher than that of natural gas development. And it will never run out.
The operators of energy funds reported that the governments of various countries are very willing to let us bring in capital and technology to help them build future power and hydrogen energy centers, and they are also willing to let local banks help us withdraw the investment income several times the principal in advance. So there is no need to worry about no money in this field. Economic activities that are conducive to social development are always supported.
At the same time, Yang Zhiguang, the operator of ocean energy investment funds, also said that at present, there are really not many companies and institutions that are truly capable of operating in the field of ocean power generation, because the investment threshold for building or investing in ocean power plants is too high, and ordinary companies cannot enter. There are not many reliable technologies. The technologies of traditional tidal dams or hydraulic windmills at the bottom of the dam are high in cost, low in efficiency and economical.
Now, floating deployment is high feasibility and has the lowest cost and large power generation. However, there is no universal solution to solve the one-stop floating objects fixation. It requires a solution tailored to local conditions, flexible use of technology, direct anchoring at low water speed, large anchor or pile driving at high water speed, or establishment Artificial anchorage etc.
At the same time, the turbines that draw ocean currents for ocean power generation also need to be specially made, because ocean power generation cannot be made so big like a windmill for windmill power generation. The depth of the sea is limited, and it will change with the rise and fall of the tide. The magnitude of the thrust to obtain water can only lengthen the fan surface and make a special seabed acceleration water trap. At the same time, different filters must be made according to the marine life in different regions. This field has not been promoted on a large scale and needs further development.
In the current power generation industry, the sustainable and pollution-free projects like ocean power generation are the most promising and practical. The field of ocean energy extraction and power generation is further subdivided into tidal power generation, tidal power generation, ocean current power generation, sea temperature difference power generation, sea water salinity difference power generation, etc. At present, the model of using turbine windmills to extract tidal and ocean current energy is relatively mature, as the mechanical structure of the windmill is simple, the kinetic energy loss is small, it is not easy to be damaged, and the power transmission efficiency is high.
The development of hydrogen fuel in developed countries, such as the United States, Japan, South Korea and other countries.
The United States was the first to propose a development blueprint based on the hydrogen energy economy, which was divided into four stages: technology research and development, market preparation, market and infrastructure construction, full marketization and infrastructure improvement. Once it was proposed, it was fully participated in coordinated advancement and obtained by the government and industry. In the past ten years, the United States has provided continuous and stable support in the field of hydrogen energy and fuel cells, with an investment of more than 1.6 billion U.S. dollars (over 10 billion yuan), and coordinated the resources of ministries and commissions to support the research and development, demonstration and industry related to hydrogen energy and fuel cells application. It can be said that the United States is currently in a leading position in the field of hydrogen energy technology. At the same time, the United States supports the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicles in the form of subsidies in fiscal and taxation support policies, which is also an experience worth learning from our country.
Japan was the first country to propose a vision for the development of a hydrogen energy society. The Japanese government took hydrogen energy and fuel cell technology as an important strategic area in its national economic and energy strategies such as the “Japan Rejuvenation Strategy” and “Energy Strategy Plan”. At the 2020 Tokyo Olympics, Japan may fully demonstrate hydrogen energy technology. Japan released the “Basic Hydrogen Energy Strategy” in 2017, and proposed the possible directions for the future hydrogen energy economy and society: 1. Make full use of renewable energy to realize low-cost hydrogen generation; 2. High-efficiency storage, transportation and supply in multiple fields Applications.
At the same time, the “Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cell Technology Roadmap” issued by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan proposed a three-step strategy: 1. Expand the application of fuel cells to form the world’s leading hydrogen energy and fuel cell market to ensure the industrialization of technology; 2. Forming a hydrogen power generation and hydrogen energy supply system; 3. Hydrogen generation from renewable energy sources, and ultimately achieving “zero carbon” hydrogen energy supply.
In addition, Japan has set clear goals for fuel cell vehicles and infrastructure construction. In terms of its inventory, it is proposed to reach 40,000, 200,000, 800,000, and 3,000 in 2020, 2025, 2030, and 2040, respectively. In terms of hydrogen refueling station construction, it is proposed to reach 160 and 320 in 2020 and 2025 respectively, and the cost of hydrogen will be reduced to 30 yen/m3 in 2025. In 2018, Japan’s support in the field of hydrogen energy and fuel cells exceeded 49 billion yen (about 3 billion yuan).
South Korea’s hydrogen energy and fuel cell development planning system is comprehensive, and it proposes to form a hydrogen energy-based economic system in 2030 and realize the commercial operation of fuel cell vehicles. On the development route of fuel cell vehicles, South Korea proposed to build 100 hydrogen refueling stations by 2020, and the number of fuel cell vehicles will reach 10,000; in 2025, there will be 210 hydrogen refueling stations and the number of fuel cell vehicles will reach 100,000; in 2030 there will be 520 hydrogen refueling stations, and fuel cell vehicles will account for 10% of the total sales of all new vehicles, with a total of 630,000 vehicles.
South Korea’s support policy for fuel cell vehicles is also very systematic and comprehensive. In terms of fiscal expenditures, R&D support in 2018 reached 40 million U.S. dollars (approximately 270 million yuan), and said that its R&D expenditures have been increasing year by year; in terms of tax reduction and exemption, Starting in 2017, the purchase tax (36,000 yuan) and holding tax (13,800 yuan) will be reduced and exempted, and congestion fees, parking fees will be reduced or exempted, and tax exemptions for hydrogen energy use will be provided.
China will build 100 hydrogen refueling stations by 2020.
At the beginning of the planning of the new energy strategy, China’s fuel cell was established as a key development direction, divided into several five years. The “Tenth Five-Year Plan” is the basic fuel cell research and development stage. The “Eleventh Five-Year Plan” is combined with the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and 2010 Shanghai World Expo. On the basis of that, the small-scale generation applications have been carried out. During the “Twelfth Five-Year Plan” period, vehicle companies have entered one after another. For example, companies represented by SAIC have developed Roewe 950 (parameter/inquiry), etc. Since 2016 , commercial vehicles represented by buses and logistics vehicles, and passenger vehicles represented by SAIC have successively put fuel cell products on the market. The “13th Five-Year Plan” has become a breakthrough in the industrialization of China’s fuel cell vehicle development.